The Strange Case Of The Planet That Shouldn’t Be There


Historically, finding the Holy Grail of planets orbiting stars behind our Sun has proved difficult. The discovery of the first exoplanet orbiting a star similar to the Sun occurred a generation ago, and this is certainly one of mankind’s greatest achievements. The discovery of a giant exoplanet can be compared to observing light reflecting from the wings of a flying butterfly floating near a 1,000-watt light bulb of a glowing street lamp when the observer is 10 miles away. Half of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics was jointly awarded to Michel Major and Didier Kelos “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-like star.”

Some of the exoplanets discovered since then resemble the planets that inhabit our solar system, while others have proved to be real eccentrics – so different from the family of planets on our Sun – that they have defied astronomers’ wildest dreams. have been discovered. In September 2019, Spanish and German astronomers from the Calar Alto consortium on high-resolution M dwarfs with exozemle with spectrographs in the near infrared and optical scale (CARMENES) announced the discovery of another exoplanet, which, according to modern knowledge, will not be like this. must exist. A group of scientists who discovered a planet that shouldn’t be there has discovered a colossus from a gaseous planet, the mass of which is unusually large compared to its tiny parent star GJ 3512. Astronomers have concluded that this strange world probably originated from “protoplanetary unstable gravity. a gas-dust accretion disk orbiting its young dwarf parent star. This contradicts the most common model of planetary formation to date, according to which a solid protoplanetary nucleus is required to collect ambient gas.

This is due to the fact that astronomers studying planets believe that children’s planets are born as a by-product of the process of star formation. According to this view, planets are born in the remnants of the accretion disk from which their parent star originated. The most widespread model of infant planet formation is based on the idea that an object first arises from a cluster of naturally sticky particulate matter in an accretion disk. Under the influence of gravity, these planetary embryos (protoplanets) create an atmosphere from the surrounding gas. Scientists from the CARMENES consortium led by Dr. Juan Carlos Morales, a researcher at the Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC) in Spain, with the participation of Dr. Diana Kosakowski and Dr. Hubert Clare of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) in Heidelberg, Germany discovered this giant gas planet that resembles the striped colossus of our solar system. “Far World” contradicts the most widely accepted model of planetary formation, because it seems to come directly from the accretion disk, without a solid condensing nucleus that could capture the surrounding gas.

The distant world, called GJ 3512 b, is only 30 light-years from our Sun with its dwarf parent star GJ 3512. The planet has a mass of at least 50% of Jupiter’s mass, and it takes 204 days to complete a full orbit. around his star.

GJ3512b itself is not strange. However, orbiting a small red dwarf, it joins the most unusual and special exoplanets. Tiny red dwarfs are the smallest, as well as the most common of all the real nuclear thermonuclear stars in our Milky Way galaxy. The GJ 3512 has only about 12% of the mass of our Sun. This means that the maximum gas ratio between the parent star and its planet is 270. For comparison, our Sun is about 1050 times more massive than Jupiter. Observing a planet that has no right to be where it is – if the most widely accepted model is true – causes theoretical physicists a headache from turning into gas giants such as GJ 3512.

“One solution could be a very large disk containing the necessary building blocks in sufficient quantities,” Dr. Clare said in an MPIA press release dated September 26, 2019. Clare chairs the working group on planetary theory at MPIA. If the protoplanetary accretion disk orbiting the star has more than about 1/10 stellar mass, the gravitational effect of the parent star is no longer sufficient to maintain the stability of the disk. The density of the recording material itself plays an important role in the play, and its influence becomes both noticeable and significant. The result is a gravitational collapse similar to what happens at the birth of a baby star. However, young dwarf stars have not yet seen this.

Quest

On January 9, 1992, radio astronomers Dr. Alexander Volshchan and Dr. Dale Frail recognized their important discovery of an undeniably strange planet duo orbiting a star-shaped corpse called a pulsar. Pulsars rotate newborn neutron stars quickly and steadily, and it is the remains of a doomed massive star that collapsed as a result of a type II supernova (nuclear collapse). These objects are very compact. A teaspoon of neutron stars can weigh as much as a fleet of limousines.

The discovery of alien pulsar planets orbiting a rotating dead dense star called PSR 1257 and 12 is widely believed to be the first confirmed detection of extrasolar planets. However, pulsar planets are extremely strange animals inhabiting the planetary zoo. This batch of alien exoplanets probably formed from the unusual supernova remnants that gave rise to their parent pulsar in the second cycle of the planet’s birth – or, alternatively, to be the persistent stone nuclei of giants. explosion of a supernova, then fell into its current orbit.

On October 6, 1995, Nobel laureates Dr. R. Michel Major and Didier Keloz of the University of Geneva in Switzerland announced the first confirmed discovery of an exoplanet orbiting the main star (burning hydrogen) still “alive” as our own Sun.

At the beginning of this new era of exoplanet discovery, the most confirmed exoplanets were the huge gas giant planets that surrounded their parent stars in dense hot orbits. The discovery of these hot extraterrestrial Jupiters surprised astronomers. Indeed, the theories of planet formation assumed that giant planets should be able to form only further from their stars. However, more other types of planets were eventually discovered, and it is now clear that hot Jupiters are a minority of exoplanets. In 1999, The Andromeda’s Ipsylon became the first star of the main sequence, which is known to be home to several planets. Kepler-16 is home to the first extraterrestrial planet discovered in the orbit of a binary galaxy in the main sequence.

On February 26, 2014, NASA announced the discovery of 715 newly tested extraterrestrial planets orbiting 305 stars discovered by the Kepler Space Telescope. These exoplanets have been tested by astronomers using a statistical method called multiple verification. Before these new results were available, most of the exoplanets tested were gas giants comparable in size to Jupiter or more. That’s because they’re easier to spot. On the contrary, Kepler’s worlds are usually somewhere between the smallest sizes of Neptune and Earth.

On July 23, 2015, NASA announced the discovery of Kepler452b, a Earth-sized planet orbiting the habitable G2 star zone. The habitable zone around the star is the Goldilocks zone, where it is not too hot and not too cold, but only for liquid water. The presence of liquid water is necessary for the emergence of life as we know it, and therefore the planets in the habitable zone of their star parents suggest the possibility – but not the promise – of welcoming life.

Astronomers looking for exoplanets have discovered thousands of such worlds in our Milky Way. As of October 1, 2019, there were 4,118 confirmed exoplanets in 3,063 systems, with 669 systems placing more than one planet.


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