Sleep Disorders


Sleep needs also vary with age, decreasing from 16 hours a day in childhood and stabilizing by 71/2 to 8 hours for most normal adults. Hypersomnolence refers to feelings of drowsiness and fatigue during the day, despite a healthy circadian rhythm and a sufficient amount of sleep the night before. These feelings can lead to involuntary mistakes in drowsiness or drowsiness, which in turn puts people at risk for accidents. Some people with hypersomnolence disorders feel the effects of daytime sleepiness before buckling, while others fall asleep unconsciously.

People with this condition often feel excessively tired at work and struggle to get enough sleep during their allotted daytime rest period. Up to 32% of night shift workers and 26% of rotating shift workers meet the diagnostic criteria for shiftwork disorders. Central sleep apnea occurs when the brain stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing, leading to episodes of suffocation during the night.

It can also take the form of waking up early in the morning, where the individual wakes up several hours earlier and is unable to resume sleep. Difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep can often manifest as excessive daytime sleepiness, waklert armodafinil which typically results in functional limitations throughout the day. Chronic psychophysiological insomnia (or “learned” or “conditioned” insomnia) can result from a stressor combined with fear of not being able to sleep.

Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition characterized by obstructive apnea/hypopnea caused by laxity of the pharyngeal musculature that leads to repeated collapse of the upper respiratory tract during sleep. Patients with OSA complain of excessive daytime sleepiness, morning headaches, lack of judgment, impotence and depression. Loud snoring, panting, choking, snorting or interruptions in breathing while sleeping are often reported by their bedmates. A higher BMI and remaining depressive symptoms are the two best independent predictors of OSA in a patient with bipolar disorder. Primary insomnia and hypersomnia, narcolepsy, breathing-related sleep disorder, circadian rhythm sleep disorder are some of the dyssomnies.

When a person suffers from difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep, it is known as primary insomnia. The most common non-pathological cause of daytime sleepiness is probably a voluntary lack of adequate sleep. The usual duration of sleep should be part of sleep history, and sleeping less than 4 to 5 hours a night is generally insufficient to maintain normal alertness during the day. The most common cause of excessive daytime sleepiness seen in sleep disorder clinics is OSA. Insomnia is an inability to get the amount of sleep needed to function efficiently during the day. About 1 in 3 people in the United States report difficulty sleeping at least one night a week.

Melatonin reduces the latency of the onset of sleep and turns circadian rhythms at an earlier time point in delayed sleep phase disorder. Melatonin is also recommended for advanced sleep disorder, although there is no reported evidence to support this. People with sleep apnea typically make periodic stutters or “snorting sounds,” temporarily interrupting their sleep. People with sleep apnea may also experience excessive daytime sleepiness, as their sleep is often disturbed and they may not feel restful. If other medical problems are present, such as congestive heart failure or nasal obstruction, sleep apnea can be resolved with treatment of these conditions.